The bright yellow roadside flowers of Coltsfoot, Tussilago farfara, have long faded away for another year. This Spring Coltsfoot bloomed during the last two weeks of March and the first week of April in South-Central Pennsylvania.
The yellow composite flowers remind one of dandelions, and so do the seed heads. After the flowers are visited by their pollinators the flowers produce their seeds in round heads, just like a dandelion, although the seed heads may be more compact in shape and not quite as round.
All it takes is a gust of wind or physical disturbance from a passerby to disperse the seeds of Coltsfoot. (Photo taken 18Apr2010.)
The fluffy seed head will stand easily a foot tall, so they are usually taller than dandelion seed heads that so many people hate to see in their lawns.
The hoof-shaped leaves of Coltsfoot will continue to grow throughout the spring and summer until they are quite large, even larger than your hand.
Seed heads and leaves of Coltsfoot. Photo taken 2May2010.
Dandelion seed heads are completely spherical and their jagged leaves are easy to spot. Photo taken 2May2010.
Because they have very different leaf shapes no one should mistake dandelion for coltsfoot should they be interested in collecting seeds for their own dispersal.
Pussytoes are common roadside flowers. To find them look along ditches or hillsides next to the road, or open areas in the woods. If you look for them, you’ll most likely find some as they tend to form mats. Flowering pussytoes are quite common in mid-Spring to Summer.
Several species of pussytoes, or everlastings as they may be called, are native to the Eastern US. Pussytoes are differentiated by their leaf structure and leaf arrangement.
Our example here is called Smaller Pussytoes, Antennaria neodioica. Its characteristics include the presence of one prominent vein instead of three veins in the basal leaves, and basal leaf shoots that are not long and prostrate. Also, the basal leaves turn upward at the tips which come abruptly to a point.
Basal shoots in the image above are turned upward and not prostrate to the ground. The abruptly pointed tip and single leaf-vein can also be seen. (Photo taken 18Apr2010.)
A very similar plant, Field Pussytoes, A. neglecta, has one-veined, spoon-shaped basal leaves that do not come to a point and longer basal leaf shoots that lie prostrate. Newcomb’s Wildflower Guide provides line drawings and descriptions that help to differentiate several pussytoes.
The flower parts are indistinguishable and comprised solely of disc flowers. Ray flowers are not present in this member of the Compositae, the composite or daisy family. The small white flowering head appears fuzzy or woolly, as do the leaves and stems.
Pussytoes cluster their flowers at the top of a woolly stem that might reach 6 to 12 inches tall. Six to eight composite flowers are very bright white.
Several pussytoes flower heads and a resting crane fly. (Photo taken 18Apr2010.)
Small leaves on the stem are lance-like and are held close to the stem. Basal leaves are somewhat larger than the stem leaves and have a broad tip that makes the basal leaf spoon-shaped.
The common name pussytoes is fitting as the flowers do look like pussycat toes and the flowers clustered together remind one of a cat’s paw.
Sometimes the pussytoes have a dozen or more flower heads clustered together.
(Photo taken 30Apr2010.)
Patch of pussytoes at the side of the road. Their white flower heads lean toward the sun. (Photo taken 30Apr2010.)
Pussytoes will continue to be seen flowering at the edge of the road or forest for weeks to come. They have an ability to form mats, where several plants grow densely in a small area.
The basal rosettes of pussytoes are close enough together and so dense as to form mats. This mat-forming ability makes pussytoes more noticeable along the roadside. (Photo taken 30Apr2010.)